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  • Writer's pictureAccessible Art History

AP Art History: Ancient Rome, Part One


Welcome back to the Accessible Art History Blog! In this week’s post, I’m continuing with my AP Art History series. The Ancient Roman period was one filled with incredible developments in art, culture, and politics. I’m breaking this section into three posts to make sure I cover it all! So, to learn more, keep on reading!

Work 39: House of the Vettii

The first work I’m discussing in today’s post is actually an entire house! Two thousand years ago, Mt Vesuvius erupted violently and covered the town of Pompeii with ash. This created a veritable tomb in which art, architecture, and people were encased for the next couple of millennia. Since the 19th century, the city has allowed historians and archaeologists to learn a lot about daily life in ancient Roman times.

The House of the Vettii stands as a remarkable testament to the grandeur and opulence of ancient Roman life. This lavish residence, located in the heart of the city, offers a vivid glimpse into the daily lives and aesthetic sensibilities of the affluent Pompeian elite during the first century CE. Named after its presumed owners, the Vettii brothers, Aulus Vettius Restitutus and Aulus Vettius Conviva, this magnificent villa showcases the intricate fusion of architecture, art, and luxury that characterized the era.

This building is renowned for its stunning frescoes, intricate mosaics, and meticulous architectural details. The atrium, a central courtyard that formed the heart of the house, is adorned with a striking marble impluvium, a sunken basin that collected rainwater, surrounded by frescoes depicting scenes of mythology, nature, and daily life. The peristyle garden, an oasis of tranquility, features meticulously designed landscaping, ornate fountains, and more captivating frescoes that continue the narrative of beauty and luxury. The walls throughout the villa are adorned with vibrant and detailed frescoes, illustrating a diverse range of subjects, from mythological tales to depictions of sumptuous feasts and indulgent leisure activities.

The House of the Vettii also provides valuable insights into the social dynamics and cultural influences that shaped Pompeian society. The architecture and decor reflect a fusion of Roman, Greek, and Egyptian elements, showcasing the cosmopolitan nature of the city and its inhabitants' interactions with a broader Mediterranean world. This eclectic mix of styles and themes underscores the sophistication and global perspective of the Vettii brothers and their contemporaries.

Work 40: Alexander Mosaic from the House of Faun, Pompeii

The Alexander Mosaic captivates viewers with its dramatic depiction of a pivotal moment in history. This extraordinary mosaic, originally discovered in the House of the Faun in Pompeii, is believed to date back to the late 1st century BCE. It portrays the famous Battle of Issus, a decisive encounter between Alexander the Great of Macedon and Darius III of Persia in 333 BCE.

The mosaic's intricate details and vibrant colors showcase the skill and artistry of its creators. Measuring over 8 meters (26 feet) in length and more than 5 meters (16 feet) in width, the mosaic is a remarkable feat of ancient craftsmanship. It is composed of countless tesserae, small colored stones or tiles, painstakingly arranged to create a stunning representation of the battlefield. The mosaic captures the chaos of warfare with breathtaking realism: charging cavalry, infantry clashes, and the two central figures of Alexander and Darius locked in an intense gaze.

The emotional intensity of the Alexander Mosaic is incredible. Alexander, astride his horse Bucephalus, is depicted as a charismatic and determined leader, his eyes focused unwaveringly on his foe. Darius, in stark contrast, conveys vulnerability and desperation as he flees the battle on his chariot. The mosaic's ability to convey not just the grandeur of the event but also the human emotions of its participants is a testament to the artistry's power to transcend time and connect with audiences across centuries.

The House of the Faun, where the mosaic was originally located, was one of the most opulent residences in Pompeii, reflecting the wealth and refined tastes of its inhabitants. The placement of the Alexander Mosaic within this lavish setting underscores the significance of the artwork as a symbol of status, culture, and a celebration of classical history. Today, the mosaic resides in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples, where it continues to inspire awe and admiration as a tangible link to the past—a testament to the enduring impact of ancient artistry and its ability to bring history to life.

Work 42: Head of a Roman patrician

The sculpture of a Head of a Roman patrician is a compelling and evocative piece of ancient art that offers a glimpse into the remarkable craftsmanship and portraiture of the Roman Republic era. This marble sculpture, believed to have been created around the 1st century BCE, captures the essence of Roman aristocracy through its meticulous detailing and emotional depth.

Carved with exquisite precision, the head conveys a sense of dignified nobility and character. The subject's stern expression, furrowed brow, and deeply set eyes suggest a man of wisdom and authority. The meticulous attention to facial features, such as the carefully sculpted wrinkles and lines, adds a sense of realism that enables viewers to connect with the individual behind the sculpture. This is what art historians call “verism”. This term means that artists and their subjects sought to show their true likeness in art. By showing the deep wrinkles, furrowed brows, and stern expression, the viewer would know that this man was important because the stress of his life and job were engraved on his face. The dignified visage of the patrician in this sculpture serves as a reminder of the Roman values of gravitas, authority, and statesmanship.


These works are only the first 3 in the APAH art history section on Ancient Rome, so keep an eye out for the follow up post with the next ones!



  1. Floor plan of the House of the Vettii. CC 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons

  2. Atrium of the House of the Vetti. Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons

  3. Alexander Mosaic. Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons

  4. Head of a Roman Patrician. CC 2.0, Steven Zucker, via Smarthistory

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